In 2016, the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China and U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities jointly set up the Canada Learning Initiative in China (CLIC), which provides short-term credit courses for Canadian first-class university students through Chinese Scholarship Council. During Premier Li Keqiang's visit to Canada in 2016, CLIC was written into the Sino-Canadian Joint Statement as an important achievement. In 2017, during the visit of Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau to China, the Chinese and Canadian governments signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on CLIC, witnessed by the prime ministers of the two countries. The MOU established the policy framework for Sino-Canadian intergovernmental cooperation, i.e. facilitating Canadian students to study in China.